Smoking and weight gain
On average, people who quit smoking gain almost 5 kg in weight during the next year, according to a meta-analysis of 62 studies. However, almost one-in-six lose weight after smoking cessation.
People who quit smoking without additional treatment (eg nicotine replacement therapy) gained, on average, 1.12 kg during the month after quitting, 2.85 kg after three months, 4.23 kg after six months and 4.67 kg after a year.
However, the changes in weight varied widely: 16 per cent of people lost weight after quitting, 37 per cent gained less than 5kg and 13 per cent gained more than 10kg. After a year, people who used nicotine replacement therapy gained, on average, 4.86 kg compared to 4.08kg and 4.17kg with bupropion (300 mg daily) and varenicline (2 mg a day) respectively.
Vitamin D cuts fracture risk
N Engl J Med 2012;367:40-9
High-dose vitamin D supplements reduce the risk of hip and nonvertebral fractures in people aged 65 years or older, according to an analysis of 31,022 patients who received oral vitamin D supplements during 11 double-blind, randomised studies.