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Who should be referred for lung volume reduction treatment?

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Endobronchial valves have been developed Endobronchial valves have been developed to provide lung volume reduction without invasive surgery

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic, debilitating and progressive disease with many patients having frequent exacerbations requiring intervention.1 COPD incorporates a variety of diseases including emphysema and chronic bronchitis and has irreversible chronic obstruction of airflow, with smoking being the primary causation in 80% of patients.2 Symptoms can include increased shortness of breath, sputum production, weight loss and restricted mobility which can vary in severity and may affect all aspects of daily living. The severity of COPD is commonly classified based on the GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) criteria.3 It is based on comparing the measured forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) against the predicted value. It classifies patients into four categories: mild; moderate; severe; and very severe. In patients with FEV1/FVC <70%:

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